Airlines might hold The Answer

Greetings from The Slave Detective,

It always gives me a great feeling of pleasure to see a conviction or a significant arrest for Human Trafficking.

This is of course tainted with the knowledge that there is a person who has been exploited. Hopefully their story has been heard and they are being supported by the likes of The Poppy Project.

I have notice in recent times how persons in a position of authority have been particularly targeted. This Blog looks at persons in positions of abuse in the transport industry.

Transportation is one of the indicators for Human Trafficking and is required to be proved in order to actually have an offence.

airline human_trafficking

Air France recently had one of its managers arrested with his Brazillian wife using cheap Air France plane tickets to bring victims from Brazil to France.

The executive and his wife travelled to Brazil about once a month and would return each time with several women who they passed off as family members, and who were thus entitled to travel on tickets costing only €150 each.

The operation was brought to a halt after one of the women, who had come to France in 2010 to study but was allegedly forced into prostitution by the executive’s wife Claudia, eventually escaped her pimps in 2013 and alerted the police.

A long time ago Delta Airlines were looking at educating their staff on Human Trafficking, looking to raise their awareness.

I’m sure many others have looked at this issue but of course cost is always an issue when big companies are looking to maximise their profits.

There is a web site that raises awareness in airline staff. I spotted it on one of my readers pages. (Thank you Phil Cenedella). It reminded me of my attempts to get airlines involved in Human Trafficing.

Airline Ambassadors International has a web page devoted to such a topic.

“Airports and supporting travel hotels are major hubs of entry and exit for perpetrators and victims alike. Training is needed for airport and travel industry personnel including airport employees, hotel employees, tourism companies, ground transportation and law enforcement.”

Maybe we should be contacting our airline of choice to establish exactly what they are doing with their staff.

Cases have been documented in which traffickers have misrepresented themselves as sports coaches, employers, and family members of trafficked victims. Airport personnel at ticket counters, gates and other areas of airport operations are in a unique position to identify potential victims and report potential incidents to law enforcement agencies, in order to rescue victims and bring traffickers to justice.

I wanted Airports in the UK to have posters placed in Immigration and places of promanace in their buildings.

It was met with a frosty reception by airport owners.

Space is advertising revenue! Once again it is left to the persons who pay these people wages to tell them what we want!



Our Vision for a World Without Slavery

Enjoy an artical written by a friend. Its very good!

Human Traffic


“Those who deny freedom to others deserve it not for themselves,” President Abraham Lincoln ‘The Great Emancipator’ proclaimed;

Surely the fact that there are more slaves now than ever before in the history of humanity would shock him.

Tragic and ironically we should be celebrating the 150 year of the emancipation but we cannot as slavery still exists.

Because human rights activists are drawing attention to this ‘atrocity’ there is no doubt trafficking exists.

That potential victims do not recognize traffickers or do not understand what they are involved in until it is too late, that worlds’ police force cannot identify it as is happening right before their eyes, and all world citizens including countries’ leaders deny the problem exists in their homeland and shifts the responsibility elsewhere.

While there are laws against human trafficking in about 80% of nations, it is estimated that 27 million people will be victims of slavery this year and that is about 3 out of every thousand people globally.

Slavery dates back to 3000 BC and enters society when civilizations begin to form.  Every ancient civilization had slaves and it is currently a global problem. In a September 2012 statement President Obama states, “Now, I do not use that word, ‘slavery’ lightly. It evokes obviously one of the most painful chapters in our nation’s history. But around the world, there’s no denying the awful reality.” He goes on to describe different types of slavery as:

  • A desperate man needs work and is forced to work for little pay and is beaten when he tries to escape.
  • A woman is locked in a sweatshop or as a domestic servant that is alone, abused and incapable of leaving.
  • When a little boy is kidnapped and turned into a child soldier or be killed.
  • When a little girl is sold by her impoverished family, runs away from home by promises of a better life is then imprisoned in a brothel and tortured if she resists.

“It is barbaric, and it is evil and has no place in a civilized world” (Kiener, 2012)  A more concise definition of slavery is complete ownership and control by a master who controls the victim through violence, intimidation and exploitation without pay.

In a statement on July 17, 2012 US Senator John Kerry asserts that the United States role as “a source” to be “egregious.”  The above global map provided by the United States Trafficking in Persons Report and referenced by Kerry in his statement shows just how prevalent the problem actually is and identifies the United States as a source, transit, and destination country. “In the end, none of us an escape our moral obligation to be a leader in the fight against this modern-day slavery,” said Sen. Kerry. “History teaches us that we are safest and stronger when the world hears from America and when America takes the lead and we share the destiny of all people on the planet. That has always inspired people, and it always will—for the triumph of injustice is man-made, and so, too, can injustice be undone at the hands of good men and women who take action.”  (Kerry, 2012) Twelve years ago the United States passed The Trafficking Victims Protection Act in response to growing concerns over modern day slavery. That same year the United Nations adopted the Palermo Protocol which is designed to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially those involved in the exploitation of women and children. The TVPA defines “severe forms of trafficking in persons” as:

  • “Sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age.”
  • “The recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.”

“A victim need not be physically transported from one location to another in order for the crime to fall within these definitions.”

Modern day slavery is a problem thriving today due to the global economic crisis, globalization, and international crime syndicates. There are differences on how to define it and handle prosecution; additionally there is an essential need to inform the world’s citizens, individual countries leaders and law enforcement at all levels. Education of all potential victims, law enforcement, and world leaders is the key to prevention of human trafficking in source countries, transit and destination countries. Human trafficking victims include those women, men, and children:

  • Forced to work on farms
  • In factories
  • As domestic servants
  • Child soldiers
  • For the purpose of organ harvesting

Foreign victims of trafficking are often afraid to come forward. They believe they are criminals or the captors use tactics such as:

  • Taking their passports.
  • Psychologically and physically abusing them.
  • Threatening to harm or kill their families.
  • Denying them medical attention.
  • Giving them little or inappropriate clothing or food.
  • Giving them little or no time off.
  • Making them work and live in the same place.
  • Isolating the victim and not disclosing the location of the victim.

Additionally it is estimated that 95% are forced into sexual exploitation.  Sex workers include:

  • Prostitutes
  • Street walkers
  • Pornography
  • Phone sex
  • Brothels
  • Escort services
  • Massage Parlors

This happens on a state, national and international level.

One story in the Trafficking In Persons Report references a 12 year old runaway that plans on returning home the next day but instead is held against her will by a pimp. She is beaten when she tries to escape and threatened with her life.  (TIP 2012) This particular incident happened in New York City but could have happened in any city or town in the United States.

Human trafficking is a lucrative business and will likely see a profit of about 32 billion US dollars this year. That is a 70% profit margin.

Legal companies like Exon and Google will have about a 28% profit margin. Slaves are cheap to maintain because they are abundant. This illegal industry has been growing rapidly since the 1980’s.

People are expendable because of the current economic crisis and easily replaced.  In the 1800’s the average annual cost to maintain a slave was $40,000 (adjusted for inflation). Contrast that with 2012 when the average annual cost was $90/ £52.

In a letter Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons Luis C deBaca wrote “The voices of survivors- whether calling from the past or ringing out in a courtroom in 2012- are a sad reminder that the struggle against modern-day slavery is a long fight still not won. They are a reminder that if governments shirk their responsibility to bring traffickers to justice and to help victims on their road to recovery, the intolerable yoke of modern-day slavery will persist.”

Prostitution is illegal in all parts of the United States except parts of Nevada!!

Therefore it is no wonder why victims often times feel more like criminals.

“Yeah he knocked my teeth out,” she said as she showed me her new smile that he paid for. “I have a prettier smile than ever, now.”

She’s been in this “life style”, as she calls it for 5 years.  When it was presented the idea that she is being sexually exploited, she laughed. “Some prostitutes might be exploited but not me. I make money and am in control.”

I wonder about Stockholm’s Syndrome as she continues to say how wonderful her trafficker/pimp is and that she thinks prostitution should be made legal.

According to The Trafficking in Persons report 98% of prostitutes want to get out but can’t. Is the prostitute  interviewed one of the 2%?

Only time will tell; one thing is sure she can’t continue forever.

“When selling sex is made illegal ‘the core act’ being sold in sex trafficking is illegal leaving no room for ‘smoke and mirrors”.  All too often prostitutes are arrested over and over again before they are finally identified as victims of trafficking.

Police forces around the world see them as criminals because they are, at least in countries were prostitution is illegal. This is further compounded by the stereotype that prostitution is a victimless crime.

True abolition of slavery hasn’t happened yet and while human rights activists with blogs such as Slave Detective, Finding Justice, and Human Trafficking News Daily: Newsfeed on Global Human Trafficking have drawn attention to this offense there is little evidence that the general population understands just what is at stake (Dye, 2013) (Human trafficking news daily/ newsfeed of global human trafficking) (Llewellyn). The victims are coerced or kid-napped, the police often treat the victims as criminals and governments as well as citizens have the delusion contrary to evidence that trafficking is not happening here. Meanwhile slavery thrives another day.

Going Dutch On The Answers To Human Trafficking

Greetings from The Slave Detective,

I friend of mine wrote an article for a national newspaper recently where he was looking at the various Policing Models around Prostitution.

This is his draft article that has yet to be published.

I’m not sure what name he uses when he is writing so we will just call him ‘Jim’

traffic calm

I’m out in Amsterdam’s Red Light District, on the hunt. It’s Friday evening, the light is vanishing behind gabled rooflines and the still canal waters are darkening. Day tourists are making way for stag parties and night crawlers. It’s a question of strength in numbers: we’re a group of five. It took some time to put this together over email and the Internet, but the dominant types we’re after won’t be found in the famous window rooms – they’ll be working behind the scenes, hidden from view.

I’m actually out with an under-cover team from the Dutch National Crime Squad. It’s an operation involving more than fifty undercover officers trying to arrest pimps and traffickers, backed by twenty uniformed bike riders who will intercept those identified. It’s an impressive turn out for a night when the Dutch national football team is playing and a loss would spell trouble in the city’s bars and clubs. We were briefed two hours ago at the Amsterdam Regional Police Headquarters, and have now arrived at the Red Light District in time for the prostitutes’ shift change. The day workers are leaving, night ones arriving. It’s the ‘boyfriends’, bodyguards and drivers collecting and dropping them off who form the target of this operation.

Leading us is Henk Werson, the most senior anti-trafficking cop in Holland. He’s a clear-eyed and shave-headed former psychologist. He looks almost Buddhist, or like a biker maybe. Both even. “I do sometimes just have to hit the open road on my Yamaha 900,” he confides. He speaks fluent English with a soft Dutch accent, but now we’re out on the streets he’s more silent, intently focused on his surrounding. It’s what lies at the heart of all good investigative cop work: the details.

Women are tapping at the UV-lit windows, trying to draw our attention. They’re doing nothing illegal. Their premises are licensed and health-controlled, it’s a safe environment for all and, proponents argue, an evolved approach to the world’s ever-evolving oldest profession. The prostitutes act out of free will, and the better ones are doing nicely from it. How nicely? Caroline, one of Henk’s colleagues, informs me that a prostitute can earn a couple of thousand euros a night. That’s equivalent to half-a-million euros of annualized pre-tax income, I calculate. Just who is the mug in this game, I’m beginning to wonder? I also wonder how much of this they keep for themselves?

British men are best represented among foreign visitors to the Red Light District, according to Mariska Majoor of the nearby Prostitution Information Center. “We have a lot of people from France, Italy, Russia and Eastern Europe, but the UK is definitely number one in numbers.” Perhaps there are just more British visitors to Holland in general, I wonder. After all, the two countries share distinct cultural and historical similarities, as maritime trading nations straddling the North Sea. It’s a history that has shaped both London and Amsterdam into trading and now trafficking hubs.

We’ve turned down the narrow side street Molensteeg, known as ‘Little Hungary’. Dutch prostitutes are a dwindling minority; some 90% of the women working here are from elsewhere. Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria are the lead source countries.

We pass a window: a dark-featured woman in a black bikini strikes a provocative pose. Caroline enters the cabin with another undercover officer. Under law, they can check the woman’s papers and proof of age. This check is to determine whether she is working “out of free will”. Henk and I hold back, to see if anyone outside responds to our presence.

After a few minutes, we enter the cabin too. The harsh top light has been turned on. The cabin is tiny, too small for us all. The woman looked to be in her early twenties under the soft UV glow, but in the harsher light she looks older. Henk is asking about a pale bruise on her leg. It’s an old one, she responds. Later Henk tells me that the pimps are using violence less: “It’s too easy for us to spot, and it’s considered bad for business. They are using more psychological methods now, usually blackmail – the stigma of prostitution in the women’s home countries, it only takes one camera phone photo.”

Caroline and Henk are satisfied with Irena’s answers, for now. If they’d become suspicious, the conversation would have turned to money. “If she can’t account for where it is, then we step up the questions and surveillance. Who is coming to visit her? Is he driving away in a brand new Mercedes? Where does he go, which other women does he see?”

We proceed to Nieumarkt, a brick plaza on the border of the Red Light District. This is as close as cars can get to narrow streets such as Molensteeg – Little Hungary – and it’s the pick-up and drop-off point during shift changes. It’s dark, cold and drizzling. I’m suddenly aware of numerous undercover men and women with earpieces. They are noting and relaying license plates to the police ‘back office’ team. The back office in turn runs checks and relays identifying information to the uniformed bike riders waiting on the ring road and other routes out of Amsterdam.

But there’s a problem, one of the plain-clothed men tells me. Kevin is a young senior officer wearing a tan-lather jacket that conceals his service weapon. “The pick-up points are moving further out.” He’s just followed a girl to the Amrath Hotel, a luxury, gothic behemoth near the central train station, five minutes’ walk away. “It means they [the traffickers] fear to enter the Red Light District itself, the women’s place of work, which is good. But it also means the borders are widening.” It’s a constant refrain of the evening: just how smart, resourceful and determined these bodyguards, ‘boyfriends’ and drivers are – or more accurately, the men behind them.

The number of registered trafficking victims in Holland has risen sharply in recently years, to 1,222 in 2011, according to CoMensha, an NGO. These numbers cover all forms or trafficking, including forced labour, but the majority involve sex trafficking. Holland now has a network of 40 shelters – including one here in Amsterdam, which I was unable to visit. It was reassuring to know that the victims’ secrecy and security was taken this seriously given the measures pimps and traffickers will take to recover their investments. Would they hesitate to pose as a foreign reporter?

And what of these ongoing threats to victims, when it comes to obtaining witness testimony and convictions? “I always say with drugs crime, we do not require the drugs to testify, and with theft, we do not require the stolen goods to testify,” Henk says emphatically. “We build the case away from the victims, and their evidence becomes the icing on the cake, if we get it.”

By following the money, Henk and his team are able to put tough money laundering legislation to work. “We can stop anyone, anywhere on the street, and if they have more than 1,000 euros we will question them.” Questioning can quickly broaden. Concurrently, his team will start working the case – the CCTV, undercover officers’ notes and phone records that establish relations between suspect and the women.

Overall, it’s an approach that garnered some two hundred convictions last year alone. In the UK, there were eight. What can we learn from it, as the UK government uses Anti-Slavery Day to talk up its record on dealing with human trafficking?

Roddy Llewellyn is a recently retired Detective Sergeant who set up the UK’s first human trafficking team at the Metropolitan Police. “There’s no doubt that they’re ahead of the curve when it comes to certain policing techniques, but they have a big advantage in the legislative framework they operate within.”

There are no juries in Holland, just a judge presiding over cases brought to trial. In the UK, police and prosecutors need to prove to a jury that a sexual offence has occurred before convictions can be obtained for trafficking in human beings involving sexual exploitation. This is notoriously difficult. Being a prostitute is also legal in the UK; it is the offering of prostitution services that is illegal – and, since 2009, the buying of prostitution services where the buyer knows the seller to be a victim of trafficking. The latter offence is particularly hard to prove.

“You’re talking about a situation, invariably taking place in private, where a prostitute confesses to a punter that she’s a trafficked victim and they go ahead anyway and you can then obtain testimony to prove as much,” comments retired Detective Sergeant Roddy Llewellyn. “It hardly ever happens. To be clear, I’m not a supporter of legalising prostitution, but equally I don’t think the answer is to prosecute potential victims of trafficking.”

Back in Holland, Henk and his colleagues are quick to acknowledge the challenges of doing this work elsewhere. “Whatever you think about the legalisation of prostitution, the size of business it has become and the people it brings here, at least we can see into it and can do something about it.”

The UK may not be ready to adopt the Dutch model of full legalisation, but, in the week of Anti-Slavery Day, it is an opportune time to re-consider how the focus could move from proving prostitution to targeting the real villains more comprehensively, as Henk Werson’s team is doing on the streets of Amsterdam.

Freedom Talk Radio Interview

Greetings from The Slave Detective,

For those who are interested or suffer from insomnia I have now been scheduled to discuss This Topic live on Freedom Talk Radio.

I don’t know exactly what we are going to discuss but it is live and could go anywhere!

Let me know what you think if you listen in? You may even want to take part? I’m not sure if they field questions but I’m open for anything.

The Growing Trend of Sex Tourist.

Greetings from The Slave Detective,

In my 200th Blog I ask:-

What drives a man to consider flying to a another country, engage in sexual acts with children in an attempt to usurp the law?


What is it that drives persons who should be looking after children abuse them?

I’m not sure if this is a growing trend or it has always been lingering in the shadows of human deprivation.

In the link above a teacher was stopped flying to Belize to have sex with a 13yr old and a 15yr old girl.

It would have been his 10th trip to the country since June 2011.

Belize refused Thompson entry, however, and when he returned to Miami, he was arrested on a charge of enticing a minor for sex. He could face up to life in prison if convicted. He was initially stopped on his way out of The USA but no evidence could be gained of any offences.

Belize, a TIER 2 TIP, Country, recently outlawed the commercial exploitation of children.

We are in the free world so of course he should be allowed to travel! Should he?

Thousands of men from Europe travel to Asia every year with the sole purpose of engaging in sexual acts with children. These men are doing irreparable damage to the next generation of man kind. Do we just accept this kind of behaviour.

How do we prevent it?

There are at least two issues here of course. Put simply, sex tourism is when someone travels with the primary purpose of paying for sex at their intended destination. But it is split into adult sex tourism and child sex tourism.

Child sex tourism is a lot more complex, and more difficult to pin down. Some of the victims are child prostitutes, some are essentially slaves and others are “groomed” by rich Westerners posing as good Samaritans.

Who would submit their own child to this?

High profile persons such as fallen pop star Gary Glitter and the death of Jimmy Savile with the revelations that he abused children have raised this issue’s profile.

“Upon hearing the sentence – the minimum permissible under local laws in Vietnam – Glitter once again protested his innocence and accused the media of waging a conspiracy against him.”

One of the major problems is that the onus to stop child sex tourism usually falls on the country in which the abuse takes place. These countries usually have poor, underfunded police forces that simply cannot afford to monitor suspicious foreigners 24 hours a day.

A common call is that the responsibility should be shifted to the richer countries from where the offenders come from, but there is often the issue of evidence.

There is also the issue of monitoring the internet where these people prey on the vulnerable.

Civil rights groups have been questioning the legality of authorities watching what we look at on the internet.

If my computer knows what I’m shopping for then shouldn’t we use this technology in the fight against this type of crime?

David Wendel Thompson communicated on Facebook with the two girls they said he targeted in Belize.

“I will make sure u always have money,” Thompson reportedly wrote on Facebook to the 13-year-old. “it hurts i want to do so much for u, i need u to give back a little … and i always want to be special to u so let me b your first.”

Authorities said David Wendel Thompson sent a similar message to the 15-year-old, saying, “i just want to be ur first thats my present so i can be special to u.”

Child protection charities are warning that sex tourism is spreading with an estimated 250,000 people travelling abroad for sex with minors every year.

We can do more and take the battle to these people. Air Canada haven’t shied away from the subject. They have spear-headed a video that is played on flights to such destinations.

“A  significant  barrier  to  putting  an  end  to  the  sexual  victimization  of  children  is  silence  and ignorance,”  a spokes person said. “The  impact  of a corporation with Air Canada’s profile speaking  out  on  this  issue  can’t  be  underestimated.”

As Brazil prepares to host the World Cup this summer, Fortaleza, one of the host cities, is under the spotlight for its reputation as the country’s capital of sex tourism and the sexual exploitation of children. With around 6,000 foreign fans expected to arrive, and Brazilians travelling to matches nationwide, there is a real fear of a huge surge in the sex trafficking of minors.

Sexual violence is the second most reported crime against children in Brazil, with most victims aged between 10 and 14. Fortaleza has received more complaints, or denuncias, to a special toll-free telephone line than any other city.

Once again we need to MAKE this type of crime completely unacceptable. It is indeed up to us to raise the issue and ask what can be done by governments and private industry to ‘target harden’ our children.


I subject myself to Q&A’s

Greetings from The Slave Detective.

I often get requests to be interviewed or persons doing their post-graduate studies wish me to answer questions.

Those that know me or read my blog know that what I am looking to do is highlight the plight of persons trafficked. Educate the masses.

Basel 1

There are many grey areas in the field of Human Trafficking. There are many factors that feature in how trafficking happens and why. I do not profess to have all the answers but I will be subjecting (if this is the right word) myself to a radio interview on the 26th March. I belive this is a live event so no doubt there will be more tricky questions for me.

Here is the last set of Q & A’s I took part in.

Are there disagreements on how to stop modern day slavery, AKA human trafficking? If so, what are the views?

Fundamentally there is little disagreement that Human Trafficking exists. In relation to how to deal with the problem there is a wide gulf of opinion. This opinion very much depends on your interpretation of Human Trafficking and the different laws.

My view is that education is the first key to prevention. The primary object of an efficient Police service is prevention.

Education is required at all levels. In source countries we need to be education the possible victims, the community leaders, the Police to identify trafficker’s methods and the legislators and public who lack understanding of what Human Trafficking is.

In Transit countries we need to be educating the border force, the legislators and the public so they ensure their Country leaders do not turn a blind eye to the problem…effectively it is someone else’s problem, they are not our citizens and they are just passing through so it will be gone very soon. Thus allowing Traffickers almost free haven.

In the destination countries we need to educate employers, persons who use the services of possible trafficked persons and persons with the money in their pocket…spending power. The list is endless but if people don’t understand how trafficking affects them and their daily life they believe there isn’t a problem.

The biggest problem here is that in this period of austerity when you get asked how you would like your taxes spent Human Trafficking doesn’t feature in the mind set.

Prevention takes many forms. This varies from education, awareness to punishment of offenders and advertising the consequences of this punishment. ie legislation to seize assets

Are there disagreements regarding the punishment for those involved in human trafficking?

I read that the Dutch increased prison terms. How do other countries compare?

The Trafficking in Persons Report (TIP report) is a global overview of the different methods of punishment of offenders worldwide. The TIP grades countries on their response to dealing with trafficking at all levels.

Each country has its own legislation but is guided by the UNODC (United Nations office of Drugs and Crime) who through the UN offer guidance.

Questions related to UN issues

As this probably varies by country: would you have knowledge of how other countries punish slave traffickers?

I suggest you read the TIP report. See on line.

Does the UN have a standard by which these criminals are punished?

The Palermo Protocol of 2000 General Assembly resolution 55/25 of 15 November 2000, is the main international instrument in the fight against transnational organized crime.

Are they punished as international human rights violators? If not, how do you feel about that?

The UN does not have the power to prosecute globally. They are a group of countries that create resolutions to advise countries. The UN only prosecutes War Crimes as far as I am aware. Then they will appoint a country to investigate.

Human Trafficking is domestically dealt with. The TIP Report grades countries response to Trafficking which is then raised by the UN to apply pressure through the UN Protocols. The UN votes on sanctions against countries that ignore their ruling. The sanctions have to unanimously voted upon. This makes in very difficult to place sanctions on countries like Saudi Arabia who are one of the worse graded countries.

I think it is very difficult to create universal legislation due to the different types of Policing/Court procedures. Also several of the UN countries depend heavily on their cheap labour and would resist global legislation.

How many human trafficking victims are sexually exploited? (A percentage would be great.)

Sexual Exploitation is notoriously difficult to quantify as is any human trafficking stats. Many have tried. I liken it to attempting to work out how many drugs dealers and drugs users there are in the world. When I was dealing with Trafficking cases 95% of all our cases were for sexual exploitation. That is not to say that this is reflective of the number of offenses committed. We never dealt with one Organ Harvesting case but this is a serious problem in places like India and China.

If the UN were to make prostitution illegal worldwide (or at least in member states) do you think human trafficking would decrease?

Firstly this is unlikely due to my previous answer. It is unlikely to be even attempted even if the UN could legislate.

Secondly even countries like the US are unable to legislate in their own country to make prostitution unlawful.

Comparing and contrasting Sweden and The Netherlands approach to the issue. Human Trafficking has significantly decreased in Sweden. Many say this is because Sweden is ignoring the problem as Prostitution is unlawful. Are victims afraid to come forward because they will be labelled as Criminals?

I have just written a blog on this very subject looking at two examples of persons riding along with the Police in these countries. Read my blog when it is posted.

Other mentions are:-

How do you feel about the fact that the UN is resistant to make prostitution illegal for all member countries?

This is not strictly the truth. The UN is made up of member countries. In order for the UN to create a resolution on the subject they must have unanimous agreement.

Questions of a More Personal Nature

Was there a particular moment in your life when you decided to become a rescuer of slaves and to seek out and arrest the perpetrators?

In 2006 I was asked to set up the Human Trafficking Team at New Scotland Yard. This was the first dedicated Human Trafficking Team in The UK. This was as a result of a National Operation call ‘Pentameter’ which was set up to lift the stone on Human Trafficking. The UK set up legislation to target Human Trafficking in 2004. Before this time the Slavery Abolition Act 1833 was the only law that dealt with this and was not fit for purpose. The Unit was set up to test and enforce the new legislation in London.

Before this I was part of a Serious Organise Crime Team targeting Organised Criminal Gangs Smuggling persons into the UK. My proactive policing experience on serious organised crime was what they wanted from me.

What drives (compels) you to do what you do?

In 2010 Government spending cuts reduced the Policing Budget. Up until this time The Government had funded the unit. The Unit was closed due to lack of funding.

In 2009 my unit was heralded as the centre of excellence for dealing with Human Trafficking in The UK and revered throughout Europe and beyond. I could not see the problem of Human Trafficking being ignored so I began to write a book on how we dealt with our cases and the problems encountered. The blog and lecturing/consulting followed on from this.

Leading the team combating HT was a ‘path finding’ experience. Many of the things that we did on the team had never been done before. Empowering victims was the driving force.

What is the youngest victim you and your team have rescued to date?

The Metropolitan Police has a designated Child Protection Team that specifically deals with Child Protection Issues. They had a small unit called Op PALADIN that tackled Child Trafficking. We assisted them on cases where children as young as 10 were trafficked. This unit now has closed down.

Op GOLF dealt in trafficking of babies from Romania as begging tools. Go to my Blog page and word search GOLF or see the links to it down the side.

The youngest Sexual Exploitation case my team dealt with was a 16yr old female who lost her virginity to traffickers. The leader of the gang was sentenced to 14yrs. Op Bactrian or again search my page.

Would you share with me a story that might emotionally move people to action?

I have many. Probably the case where two young ladies were subject to Ju Ju ceremonies, possibly when they were 14yrs old. They were recruited in Africa and trafficked to The UK for Sexual Exploitation. One was locked in a coffin to reinforce the Ju Ju Ceremony.

Put Ju Ju into my blog page.

I’ve checked out the UN’s and US’ information on what is being done but you have been directly in the trenches so:

Is modern day slavery good for any country?

The short answer is no. Many countries do rely on certain aspects of trafficking to support their economy. Countries where the general population is inherently poor and easily exploited.

The ‘Fair Trade’ movement have targeted several of these countries and have been successful in bringing about a fair wage for workers who were trafficked for labour. This has been to target the profit margin of the corporations and shame them into action.

Strangely this has now become more acceptable and has not pushed up the prices to the consumer by much.

Some people sell their children because they cannot economically afford to care for them: Is it feasible to send the rescued slave back to his or her family? Wouldn’t they be forced to sell the same child, potentially?

The issue is far more complicated than you first consider. Education is the key. By selling their children they are removing the next generation of workers for their region. Do poor people have children to sell them on?

A Romania Child Trafficking case we dealt with was where the poor community sold 1,107 children. 168 of them were criminally active in The UK with over 2,000 criminal convictions for various offences like shoplifting, begging, pick-pocketing and other forms of street crime. See Op GOLF.

The issues of what to do with the children had to be taken individually in each case for the best interest of each child. Some were returned home and some taken into care and thrived without committing further crime. The cost of this action is a hefty one.

I understand the goal is to return victims to their home countries: what if that is not possible?

Provisions are in place to assist victims of Human Trafficking to find the best solution for each individual person. If they choose to remain in the country where they were rescued support systems are put in place for them. If they choose to return they are assisted in any way that they require. The best solution has to also include a lawful solution ie be decided in a court of law (not criminal law). In the UK we have The National Referral Mechanism or NRM which is a process that officially identifies ‘Victims of Trafficking’ and creates a strategy to deal with each one.

What is being done to help those that suffer from Stockholm’s Syndrome?

There is an extensive network of support agencies for survivors of Trafficking. A research program called ‘stolen smiles’ is a great place to read.

It is also recognised that persons still working in prostitution or other forms of trafficking and have been ‘promoted’ within the network maybe ‘Stockholmed’.

Was there any particular high point when you freed someone and returned them home?

The Empowerment of a survivor is one of the most satisfying aspects of dealing with Human Trafficking Cases.

Would you please describe the story and moment? was a case where we rescued five victims one of whom was believed to have been murdered in Holland. She was also being used as a house slave where the traffickers boss (female) even spat out her chewing gum into her hand. This survivor had been keeping a diary and persuaded the first girl (the one believed to have been murdered) to escape with her. They went to their Embassy whom I had worked with previously and recognised that they might be trafficked. I interviewed them initially and the sense of relief on their faces when the realised that someone believed them and would take action was empowering. Being with them right through the process to the conviction of the gang was amazing. This is just one of the 68 cases dealt with in three years. See Op SHAWM on my blog.

The Audio of a Victims Account.

Greetings from The Slave Detective,

A real treat for you today.

Attached is an audio file of an African Victim accounts about Ju Ju.

She describes what a Ju Ju ceremony is and how the ritual is performed.

My thanks to my colleagues in Switzerland and the brave lady who agreed to be interviewed. I have met her and I know she is real.

It begins in Swiss/German but after a couple of minutes swaps to English. It is worth the wait.

Listen to it here.